Mitchell Physics Building
College Station, Texas 77843-4242
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and merging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a widely use tool to produce EUV and soft X-ray radiation via nonlinear interaction of driving laser field with gaseous medium. Usually, optimizing efficiency of HHG involves trade-off between high single atom yield (favors short wavelength of driving laser) and phase matching (favors longer driving laser wavelength). However, in the recent paper (Science 350, 1225-1231) the authors were able to find a new regime of HHG when high efficiency can be achieved using UV driving laser. They have experimentally shown the possibility to generate bright beams of soft X-ray radiation with energies up to 280 eV using 270 nm driving laser. In my talk, I'll briefly discuss their experiment and physics behind it.
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