Vitaly Kocharovsky has co-authored about 300 papers in refereed journals and proceedings. His scientific interests in theoretical physics and applied physics are very broad and cover a wide range of problems in physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, including: Quantum and nonlinear optics and dynamics, physics of semiconductors and nanostructures, optoelectronics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum electrodynamics including cavity QED,laser physics, fiber optics; generation of radiation in various spectral ranges (microwaves, THz, far/mid/near-infrared, optics, X- and gamma-rays), theory of superradiance and other cooperative coherent processes, plasma physics and electronics, electrodynamics and propagation of waves in inhomogeneous, anisotropic, active or absorbing media (solids, liquid crystals, gases, plasmas, waveguides); physics of nonequilibrium and many-body phenomena, theory of phase transitions, superconductivity and superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation, statistical physics of quantum and nonequilibrium systems; quantum gravity and quantum field theory, astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts, neutron stars, black holes, extremely high energy cosmic rays, theory of the Universe inflation and Big Bang, cosmological constant and other cosmological problems.
- Microscopic theory of phase transitions in a critical region 
- Grand Canonical Versus Canonical Ensemble: Universal Structure of Statistics and Thermodynamics in a Critical Region of Bose–Einstein Condensation of an Ideal Gas in Arbitrary Trap 
- The breaks and the hidden components in the power-law spectra of synchrotron radiation of the self-consistent current structures 
- Towards an exact solution for the three-dimensional Ising model: A method of the recurrence equations for partial contractions 
- Microscopic theory of a phase transition in a critical region: Bose–Einstein condensation in an interacting gas